Air Pollution

Clean Air

The air is still clean gas is a mix of different order as follows:


V olume, %

Nitrogen, N2


Oxygen, O2


Argon, Ar


Carbon dioxide, CO2


Helium, He


Neon, Ne


Xenon, xe


Kripton, Kr


Metana, Ch4. Carbon monoxide, CO


Ammonia, NH3. Nitrate oxide, N2O


Hydrogen sulfide, H2S


B. For the characteristics and Air Pollution

Basically the cause of air pollution similar to the causes of water pollution. Air pollution if the air is mixed with substances or the radiation effect on the ugly of living organisms. The amount of contamination is quite a lot so that can not be removed or diabsorpsi in relatively short time.

C. Unsur dan Senyawa Pencemar Udara Element and compound Pencemar Air

1. Qartikel-particles in the air

Source of particles is the smoke stack factories, nuclear explosion due to dust, forest fires, and due to volcanic eruptions. The influence of particles has been known. Particles that will fall and stick in our environment. Respirator because we will be subject to these particles. Particles also cause the growth of cancer (karsinogen), heart disease, itch, itch, and so forth. These things are caused by the actual chemical that is contained in particles / soot is.

2. Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Gas is not clear this is the colored part of the air pollution, measure up to 18%. Gas aroma sting and this is very dangerous to humans. Because the amount of SO2 oxidation H2S is 80%, the remaining 20% is the result ulah more human, that is, the result of fuel containing sulfur (S), refinery and volcanic eruptions. 20% of the S02 is a 16% is due to burning oxygen-containing substances such as sulfur oil and coal. This is membayakan health in cities that can be crippling and respiratory damage.

S02, if the act contains a fog of water vapor will form acid sulphate (H2SO4). Acid in the cloud that will go down to the ground and will cause havoc for the plants, animals, and people. H2S03 compound H2SO4 and also attack any metal surface. Including the railway, until the fence kenderaan page, ann even damage the stones, worn, and even granite. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) causes the color change of goods and going brittle. goods of plastic, rubber, paper, and so forth.

3. Carbon monoxide (CO)

Carbon monoxide made because people do not burn gasoline in perfect vehicle. in industry, power, heating home. combustion in agriculture, and so gas is not color or smell, but very dangerous. 10 CPM measure CO da1am air can cause human illness similar to the influence of CO influence of lack of oxygen. Hemoglobin which is carrying oxygen from the air seems more attracted to CO. hemoglobin with a chemical bond with a stronger bond with the oxygen from. Karboksihemoglobin molecule is very dangerous for several hours and can no longer bind oxygen that the body needed. CO suck gas out of the car exhaust in a closed garage space has caused many deaths.

4. Karbondioksida (CO2) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

combustion of fossil fuel improve CO2 concentration on earth. Exceeded the natural level, so even though not toxic, like CO2, but CO can result in earth's temperature increase. Burning fossil materials such as coal and oil to give a lot of CO2 into the air. On the green forests and the environment is reduced due to development and road building. The ability of photosynthesis to reduce CO2 dry air will decrease. Consequently cycle (cycle) will be subject to carbon. At this time only 50% of CO2 that can be issued by diabsorsi sea. There were hoarding CO2 in the air at speeds of 60 million tons per year. CO2 mengabsorpsi energy in the infra red. So much energy is thermal diabsorpsi should return to space from earth. That is the temperature rise. The increase in temperature will melt ice at the poles. Surface sea water will rise and many of the beach will be lost. That is called the influence of CO2 greenhouse gases. The remaining forest will have effect to the air condition in the future Increasing the number of CO2 will encourage faster growth of the plant, which will increase the process of photosynthesis to reduce the amount of CO2 in the air.

5. Nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NO2)

Nitrogen is very important role in the cycle for the balance of natural elements. Approximately 78% of air and nitrogen is 20% volume oxygen. Nitrogen oxide is a impurer About 10% each year impurer air is nitrogen oxide. There eight possible results of the reaction when nitrogen reacts with oxygen, which is quite a lot is NO, N20, and NO2. impure cause the air is just NO and NO2.

amount at most of the third oxide is. Gas is not colored, does not react with ozone, oxygen, and hydrocarbons in the air. Concentration of N20 derived from natural sources. NO is in the air has not been long known. NO more in the form of combustion engine. This substance and the further oxidation by oxygen or ozone, slow or fast, will produce NO2.

NO2 is a toxic gas, brown-red, sour smell like nitrate. The formation of nitrogen oxide occurred in coal combustion, petroleum, natural gas, and industrial chemicals such as nitrate factory acid, acid sulphate, and so forth. NO and NO2 can be harmful to humans and the environment. NO has the ability to limit oxygen content in blood, as well as with CO. If NO2 met with moisture in the air or in the human body will soon HNO3 is very harmful to the body, because that is the NO2 will feel jikamengenai acute eye, nose, breathe in the channel, and the heart. High concentrations can cause death. NO2 will also damage the goods because the metal will rust. NO2 can mengabsorpsi ultraviolet rays from the sun and react denganhidrokarbon is in the air. NO2 so peristiwamemanasnya temperature also affect the earth or the so-called greenhouse gases.

6. Hydrocarbons

This compound contains only carbon and hydrogen elements. Air impurer form hydrocarbons produced in the process of industrial organic solvent evaporation, and burning trash. Hydrocarbons play a role in smoke fog (smog) and photo chemicals cause cancer. Benzopirena compound is a compound of hydrocarbons found in tobacco. Cigarette smoke contains benzopirena the heart that causes cancer. Population city suck benzopirena every day around 7 in the cigarette rod. Benzopirena is there in the air most due to burning coal. About 10% out of the exhaust kenderaan, a little out of pitch or asphalt jalan. the air there is at least five, Compound other hydrocarbons that can cause heart cancer.

7. Ozone (O3)

Ozone gas is clear blue, and there is a sharp smell in the air layer above. At an altitude of 25 km above the earth to reach the maximum. Ozone is due to take-off electricity in the air. Most of the ozone formed in the air at the height of the earth far from the action because the ultraviolet rays to oxygen. Atmosphere of this area is called the ozone layer that is protective of living creatures on earth. This layer mengabsorpsi almost all ultraviolet rays from the sun. If this little ultraviolet energy to the earth and on our skin, we akanterasa burned. If we see the sun then we obstructed the ozone layer this is the living creatures on earth safely.

If we mengemisikan nitrogen oxide (NO and NO2) to the air, the ozone production of many fish dilapisan going down from the air. Ozone in this case will cause air pollution, which result in:

Ozone as a strong pengoksid react with various substances and toxic for living beings. If concentration small will cause pain in your chest, coughing, and inflammation in the eye. Damage to the plant, such as wine, sugar beet, and tobacco. Can damage the textile and rubber materials.

8. Chloro-fluoro-carbon (CFC)

Initially ozone in the upper layer of air is very beneficial for the living creatures in the earth's surface, as described above. But happening in the ozone layer depletion stratosfer (10 to 15 km in the earth ataspermukaan) cause the ultraviolet rays into the earth in a number of threatening life on earth. According to experts, this dilution because the compound and continue berlebiban-chloro-fluoro carbon (CFC), which is widely used as:

- Cooling of the engine room King (AC)

- Materials developers in making rubber

- Cleaning materials in the electronics industry

- Splasher material on perfume, hair oil, and other.

Investigation even prove CFC also contributed to the occurrence of 15% greenhouse gases besides carbon dioxide gas (CO2) metana (CH4) and nitrogenokdida (NO and NO2. Greenhouse gases that create the atmosphere causing the temperature rise cairnya in polar ice to cause the increase in surface sea water. Therefore, without a rescue effort, with the estimated temperature increase of the earth then some city di the beach in the world will stagnate.

9. Reciprocal (Pb)

In the atmosphere in city aerosol is a reciprocal impure aerosols that have been known. impure is generated by burning coal, factories, pesticide spraying, burning trash, and burning gasoline. To get gasoline with high octane, gasoline, given the mother compound reciprocal and reciprocal Tetra Tetra ethyl metil. Reciprocal and senyawanya affect the central nerve system. The characteristics of the proportionate loss of appetite is a headache, headache, anemia, difficulty sleeping, weakness, and abortion. Toxication is the reciprocal of acute comatose and die.

10. Fluoride and asbestos

Fluorida compound is toxic in large amounts when the air in the form of gas or solid. Fluorida brought on the industry mengerjakann aluminum, steel, fertilizer posfat, glassworks, pottery, and also burn coal.

At the concentration of 0001 CPM compound that easily evaporate fluorida already dangerous environment. Plants that suffer because fluoride compound that will produce fruit small and the delay in harvest. Asbestos is used for household needs. Asbestos in a senyawamagnesium of hydrate. Asbestos used for roof tiles, electrical insulator, vehicle brake, and so forth. Asbestos is involved in respiration will gather in the lungs and cause a disturbance, until the tumor and cancer. There have been forbidden to use asbestos because asbestos house development that has started frail elderly and endanger health.

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